Explain the Principles and techniques in image manipulation brainly

Principles and Basic Techniques in Manipulating Images by

  1. Principles and Basic Techniques in Manipulating Images Principles in Manipulating Images If you add something that wasn't there in the original scene. it depends on your purpose if it's okay or not. if your purpose is to portray a scene as truthful, then it is NOT okay But i
  2. Principles and Basic Techniques of Image Manipulation. 1. Ayame Productions GOOD DAY! EMPOWERMENT TECHNOLOGIES. 2. Basic Techniques of Image Manipulation. 3. There are various ways to manipulate images: - Resizing - Cropping - Color Adjustment - Balance - Brightness & Contrast - Combined Photos - Combined Text & Photos - Added Effects Basic.
  3. principles and basic techniques of image manipulation Download PRINCIPLES AND BASIC TECHNIQUES OF IMAGE MANIPULATION Prepared by: DIDA-AGUN, Haniyah R. TAIB, Asia C. FIVE PRINCIPLES 1- Contrast cutting between two different scenarios to highlight the contrast between them
  4. Principles and Basic Techniques of Image Manipulation. October 5, 2017 October 5, 2017 / Roie Cornago. Most of the time , we just capture an image and upload it on our Facebook account. From there, Facebook does the rest by formatting our image to best fit the standards set by Facebook. There are plenty of image manipulation tools but if.
  5. Principles and Basic Techniques of Image Manipulation BACKGROUND COLOR Background Color you can change the background if it does not match the image or the totality of the presentation. You can also add effects to the background. Multiple Images Multiple Images You can combin
  6. Photo manipulation techniques are used by many designers to create extremely creative works of art. It is enormously popular amongst most graphic designers who choose to use Photoshop. And the great thing is; once you understand the key focus points in photo manipulation, you can create anything you can dream of

Principles and Basic Techniques of Image Manipulatio

Principles and Basic Techniques of Image Manipulation Grade 11 St. Lorenzo - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Principles and Basic Techniques of Image Manipulation Grade 11 St. Lorenz IMAGE MANIPULATION Is an art that involves transforming or altering an image using different methods and techniques to achieved desired result. 3. Principles and Basic Techniques of Image Manipulation 4. PROPORTION 1 Proportion is probably one of the most important things a designer must possess if he wants to do image manipulations The Brainly community is constantly buzzing with the excitement of endless collaboration, proving that learning is more fun — and more effective — when we put our heads together. Help the community by sharing what you know. Answering questions also helps you learn Image manipulation involves making changes to the appearance of a photo for various purposes, such as advertisements, magazines, book and music packaging, and gallery artwork. Photos are also retouched in the modeling and acting industries, where professionals submit portfolios or photos for auditions. Also referred to as photo manipulation.

Principles and Basic Techniques of Image Manipulation

Photographic processing or photographic development is the chemical means by which photographic film or paper is treated after photographic exposure to produce a negative or positive image.Photographic processing transforms the latent image into a visible image, makes this permanent and renders it insensitive to light.. All processes based upon the gelatin-silver process are similar. The other principles include both general statements of human behavior (people are better able to control verbal than nonverbal kinesic signals) and statements specifically focused on interview or interrogation techniques (to attack a denial, the investigator should review the real or circumstantial evidence with the subject every 3 to 5 minutes) The big advantage of the PSD is that it allows for manipulation on specific individual layers, rather than on the main image itself. This makes PSDs absolutely essential for any sort of extensive manipulation of the original photograph, such as retouching. PSDs give far greater flexibility and the ability to fine-tune an image, because layers. Orange. Image via Netflix. Though often associated with warmth, energy, and humor, orange can also register a sense of warning and caution.The ancient religion Confucianism associates orange with transformation.The image above arrives at the tipping point of Beasts of No Nation — our hero is now a completely different person, almost unrecognizable as he trudges through the murky orange trenches 34 Lesson 2.1: Graphics and Layout Images An Image is a representation of the external form of a person or thing in art. Images may be 2-dimensional, such as a photograph or screen display, or 3-dimensional, such as a statue or hologram.They may be captured by optical devices such as cameras, mirrors, lenses, telescopes, microscopes, and natural objects and phenomena, such as the human eye or.

Ø An important aspect in image manipulation. Ø Images to be uploaded on the web must be of the standard resolution of 72 dpi (dots per inch) - To maintain its image file size of 30-50 KB Ø If the image is for printing, set the maximum resolution to 300 dpi - Set its physical printing size in inches 5. (Links to an external site. Left: RAW image without any editing, Right: Edited image using Lightroom and Photoshop. In the above case, I cropped the image to get closer to the rock, adjusted white balance of both the foreground and the sky, added some more color to the clouds and added a bit more structure to the clouds to make them stand out a bit more

Components of an Image Processing System 5. Mass Storage Capability Mass storage capability is a must in a image processing applications. And image of sized 1024 * 1024 pixels requires one megabyte of storage space if the image is not compressed. Digital storage for image processing applications falls into three principal categories: 1 Psychological manipulation can be defined as the exercise of undue influence through mental distortion and emotional exploitation, with the intention to seize power, control, benefits and/or. As a student,where and how can you apply the principles and techniques in image manipulation? Explain the four guidelines on proper and safe handling of food Who should you use cell reference instead of actual cell value in making formulas? Get the Brainly App Download iOS Ap 1.2 Part 1: Image Processing Techniques 1.1. Basics of image formation Since only the images obtained by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used in this work and since both techniques are well-established, only a brief introduction is given on the principles and instrumentation of SE Brainly is the knowledge-sharing community where 350 million students and experts put their heads together to crack their toughest homework questions

In other words, when you see an image that has missing parts, your brain will fill in the blanks and make a complete image so you can still recognize the pattern. Source: Eduard Volianskyi. For example, when you look at the image above you most likely see a zebra even though the image is just a collection of black shapes Our core values. Brainly's core values unite us across geographies, teams and levels. They are our shared understanding of how we work at Brainly - how we make decisions, how we collaborate, how we treat each other and how we think about the value we are creating for our community of students, parents and teachers Direct manipulation is one of the central concepts of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and is sometimes equated with what you see is what you get (WYSIWYG). These interfaces combine menu-based interaction with physical actions such as dragging and dropping in order to help the user use the interface with minimal learning 3. SciPy. SciPy is another of Python's core scientific modules (like NumPy) and can be used for basic image manipulation and processing tasks. In particular, the submodule scipy.ndimage (in SciPy v1.1.0) provides functions operating on n-dimensional NumPy arrays. The package currently includes functions for linear and non-linear filtering, binary morphology, B-spline interpolation, and object. Different Propaganda Techniques & Examples of Propaganda. There are seven different types of propaganda techniques. This includes: 1. Bandwagon Propaganda. As human beings, we have this innate desire to fit in. And that's exactly the kind of follow-the-herd mentality this technique follow

Principles and Basic Techniques of Image Manipulation by

NOAM CHOMSKY - The 5 Filters of the Mass Media Machine.. Propaganda techniques describe the specific tactics used to manipulate public opinion via propaganda. For example, name-calling, appeals to authority, exploiting emotions, presenting conflicting theories to confuse the public (we cover a long list of these techniques below) Mass production is a method of production that uses a standardized process of creating interchangeable parts in large quantities for a low price. Colonel Roswell Lee and the Springfield Armory. 1. Persuasion is not Manipulation - Manipulation is coercion through force to get someone to do something that is not in their own interest. Persuasion is the art of getting people to do things. 4) Top Data Analysis Techniques To Apply. 5) Data Analysis In The Big Data Environment. In our data-rich age, understanding how to analyze and extract true meaning from our business's digital insights is one of the primary drivers of success. Despite the colossal volume of data we create every day, a mere 0.5% is actually analyzed and used. Below, I have compiled a list of 18 forms of persuasion techniques, illogical argumentation, and fallacious reasoning that I commonly encounter in my use of social media. By learning about these.

For example, for securing passwords, authenticating banking transactions, etc. Nowadays, various new cryptographic techniques are developed and cracked; hence, it is important always to be aware of computer threats and take precautions to avoid them as best as we can. Recommended Articles. This is a guide to Cryptography Techniques The principles of art represent how the artist uses the elements of art to create an effect and to help convey the artist's intent.The principles of art and design are balance, contrast, emphasis, movement, pattern, rhythm, and unity/variety. The use of these principles can help determine whether a painting is successful, and whether or not the painting is finished

The fourteen principles of management created by Henri Fayol are explained below. 1. Division of Work-. Henri believed that segregating work in the workforce amongst the worker will enhance the quality of the product. Similarly, he also concluded that the division of work improves the productivity, efficiency, accuracy and speed of the workers Water purification, process by which undesired chemical compounds, organic and inorganic materials, and biological contaminants are removed from water.That process also includes distillation (the conversion of a liquid into vapour to condense it back to liquid form) and deionization (ion removal through the extraction of dissolved salts). One major purpose of water purification is to provide. Drawing is an easy way to exercise your creativity. Whether you're using a pencil, pen, crayon, or even your fingers, the skills you gain from the activity translate to a bevy of different media. Here are the basic drawing techniques that you need to know

10 Techniques That Are Essential for Successful Photo

8 Basic Principles of Design To Help You Create Awesome Graphics Graphic design is a highly sought-after skill. Society cares about the way things look, and there is a constant need to produce good designs, whether it's for advertisements, websites, logos, videos, banners , or web content Propaganda, dissemination of information—facts, arguments, rumors, half-truths, or lies—to influence public opinion. Deliberateness and a relatively heavy emphasis on manipulation distinguish propaganda from casual conversation or the free and easy exchange of ideas. Learn more about propaganda in this article

(click for larger image) This is a mind map about - conveniently enough - mind mapping itself. It presents, in a visual way, the core elements and techniques on how to draw mind maps. Yes, I know this may look a little too messy initially, but bear with me: once you break the ingrained habit of linear note taking, you won't look back To prevent such disadvantages, there are principles and techniques that people can apply. Elements to Consider Before Writing A Business Document. 1) The Purpose. This will serve as the direction, the reference, and the path of your details. This will set the tone, the style, and structure of your letter. This is your message and your goal Nen (念(ネン) or ネン, Nen—lit. Sense;[1]* Mind Force in the Viz transl.)[2] is one of the defining features of the manga Hunter × Hunter by Yoshihiro Togashi. It is a technique that allows a living being to use and manipulate their own life energy (known as aura);[3] the term Nen can also be used in conversation to refer to aura. A person capable of utilizing Nen is colloquially. Experiment with different perspectives to achieve the principles above. When your eyes are trained to look for these elements, and you learned how to make a composition using these principles, it doesn't matter what your subject is, just about anything can create a striking, emotion-evoking image.. I also suggest reading our guide about the difference between shape and form in photography Module 6: Unit 3 Data representation59 In a bar graph or bar-line graph the height of the bar or line is proportional to the frequency. Bars are to be drawn separated equally, with same width. The discrete value or category is placed at the centre of the bar

Design is a complicated business full of principles, tricks, and techniques, some of which you can learn from others, and some of which you have to learn on your own. Take every 'rule' you read about with a grain of salt and apply it where it feels appropriate, and abandon the rules whenever you feel they aren't Other principles of design are also touched upon in various articles on the subject. These include typography, color, Gestalt Principles, grid and alignment, framing, and shape. Some definitely fit the definition of principles while others are more like elements of design. Typography refers to the way text is arranged in a design

Empowerment Technologies - Principles and Basic Techniques

  1. Digital Manipulation. First off, digital manipulation is a way to transform artwork digitally. Using a variety of techniques and methods, artists can alter a traditional artwork to achieve new results. We commonly see this style in the form of photo manipulation. However, the same can be done to a drawing or painting created by a student
  2. Regardless of industry, here are the 9 key principals of good customer service that always make business sense. 1. Attracting new customers costs more than retaining existing customers. A satisfied customer stays with a company longer, spends more and may deepen the relationship. For example a happy credit card customer may enlist the company.
  3. 4. Respect confidentiality and privacy. Upholding individuals' rights to confidentiality and privacy is a central tenet of every psychologist's work. However, many privacy issues are idiosyncratic to the research population, writes Susan Folkman, PhD, in Ethics in Research with Human Participants (APA, 2000)
  4. Photography can be an art, a hobby, or just a way of documenting your own life. For some, photography is a career. Professional photographers work in a variety of fields, from advertising to journalism. They can also work independently, doing portraiture, or creating and selling prints for display
  5. Various forms of massage, traction, and manipulation have been used in medicine throughout the world for several thousand years. Each modality represents an approach to treatment of the musculoskeletal and other systems sought by a steadily increasing number of people, despite a relative dearth of quality, evidence-based research supporting their isolated use
  6. And continuous feedback makes interfaces easier to use, encourages exploration, and prevents errors. To illustrate the benefits of direct manipulation in real interfaces, the videos provide several examples of both particular designs and interface styles. I find that's a lot more useful than just stating abstract principles
  7. es how successful the design is. The elements of design. LINE - The linear marks made with a pen or brush or the edge created when two shapes meet

1. There is a concern that genetic engineering will take on a role beyond that which God has given to us as stewards of His creation. The Bible states that all things were created by God and for Him ( Colossians 1:16 ). God designed all living things to reproduce after certain kinds ( Genesis 1:11-25 ). Too much manipulation of the. 8 principles of Total Quality Management. As with most management methods and techniques, implementation and success will vary from one company to another. While there is not a single agreed-upon approach, the most common TQM definition includes the following eight principles. 1. Customer focu X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) is a rapid analytical technique primarily used for phase identification of a crystalline material and can provide information on unit cell dimensions. The analyzed material is finely ground, homogenized, and average bulk composition is determined SMART is an acronym that stands for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant and Time-based. Each element of the SMART framework works together to create a goal that is carefully planned, clear and trackable. You may have set goals in your past that were difficult to achieve because they were too vague, aggressive or poorly framed

4. Analyze current profitability and risk. This is the step where financial professionals can really add value in the evaluation of the firm and its financial statements. The most common analysis tools are key financial statement ratios relating to liquidity, asset management, profitability, debt management/coverage and risk/market valuation With the spread of Islam outward from the Arabian Peninsula in the seventh century, the figurative artistic traditions of the newly conquered lands profoundly influenced the development of Islamic art.Ornamentation in Islamic art came to include figural representations in its decorative vocabulary, drawn from a variety of sources C. Develop techniques to determine audience response to project designs. IV. Applied Grid Systems. A. Apply the principles and elements for layout design compositions. B. Apply the principles and elements for designing editorial layout formats. C. Explain and accommodate the differences and design for design on paper and/or the illuminated screen Explain the generally accepted principles governing fashion's origin and dynamics. Explain the ladies', children's, menswear, and intimate apparel industries from design to production to marketing. Explain the importance of foreign fashion producers in the American market, ranging from designer inspiration to competition in low-wage countries This image has been darkened to allow the text to create a sharp contrast against the background. 07. Colour. Colour is an important design basic and it dictates the overall mood of a design. The colours you pick represent your brand and its tonality, so be careful with the palette you choose

Three Major Patternmaking Principles. For making flat pattern and for making alterations according to different design it is very important to know the pattern making principles.If we know the basic principles of pattern making and alteration, we can create any design without affecting the size and shape of the original pattern It covers black/white-photography-techniques, image manipulation techniques, tools, articles and camera reviews. The Top 5 Black & White Photography Tips Five handy tips to get you going in the right direction: practice, focus on contrast, focus on texture, use color filters and more

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Historical Image Manipulation. Many people think that the manipulation of images started with the invention of Photoshop, but there have been fake photographs since the invention of photography. A Fairy photograph from 1917 from Cottingley, England by Elise Wright and Frances Griffiths. Daquilla Family Photograph by A. Werner and Sons Principles of Design: Proportion. Proportion is the sense of unity created when all the elements in a composition relate well with each other. Proportion is mostly about scale and size when two elements are compared. For instance, in art and drawing, proportion is important for the elements to look realistic Principles help you to carefully plan and to organize the elements of art so that your composition will hold interest and command attention, this is called visual impact. The principles of design are the recipe for a good work of art. The principles combine the elements to create an aesthetic placement of things that will produce a good design The truth about contemporary art is that it uses techniques that most people aren't quite used to, causing that skepticism to come into play. However, these techniques are actually quite difficult and all deserve our credit. It's an incredible feat to create a piece of contemporary art, especially using these techniques

What Is Image Manipulation, and How Is It Used

  1. What is social engineering. Social engineering is the term used for a broad range of malicious activities accomplished through human interactions. It uses psychological manipulation to trick users into making security mistakes or giving away sensitive information. Social engineering attacks happen in one or more steps
  2. 1. This image is illustrating perspective. Which of the following techniques did the artist NOT use to create this image? 2. Which color scheme is present in the fish in this image? 3. What elements were used to help draw your attention to the body of the bird in this image 4. Which concept presented in this unit is most obvious in this image? 5
  3. P8 explain evolution in terms of the Hardy-Weinberg Principle [IE, RL] M2 explain the importance of genetic variability within populations using given species. P9 describe techniques used in genetic manipulation [IE, SM] D2 evaluate the impact of advancing technology on potential applications of genetic manipulation. P10 identify applications.
  4. DEPED COPY ARTS Quarter II 232 Quarter II: TECHNOLOGY-BASED ART INTRODUCTION echnology has literally taken over every aspect of life in the 21st century, and the creative and visual arts have not been spared. In fact, for the younger generations, art as you know it is defined by technology—from its creation, to its manipulation, to its reproduction, and even to its distribution
  5. Keeping the aforementioned principles of good website design, you can easily develop an aesthetic and functional website. Without this base, it would be difficult to travel a long path. Only with a clean and user-friendly design, you can think to succeed. This is a guest article contributed by Alice Jackson

What is image manipulation? How is it done? What are its

  1. Types of Propaganda Techniques: A Detailed Explanation. Information that is spread to promote a cause or a certain view is known as propaganda. Different types of propaganda techniques are used in advertising. This MarketingWit articles tells you about them with some examples of the same
  2. utes in duration). 8. Make suggestions to parents about the possible use of various nutritional diets (e.g., the Feingold diet). 9. Regularly incorporate relaxation techniques into the daily classroom routine
  3. Visual Elements (the basic things that can be seen) 2. Design and Composition Principles (arranging the basic things better) 3. Visual Effects (ways to fool the eye - make an impression) An element is one of those most basic visible things. In science, the elements are on the periodic chart (hydrogen, iron, oxygen, gold, sulfur, etc.)
  4. Cartographers apply many design principles when compiling their maps and constructing page layouts. Five of the main design principles are legibility, visual contrast, figure-ground, hierarchical organization, and balance. Together these form a system for seeing and understanding the relative importance of the content in the map and on the page
25 Creative and Beautiful Photo Manipulation works done by

Digital Image Manipulation: A Compelling Means to Engage

Choose between traditional (left) and mechanical pencils (Image credit: Timothy von Reuden) The pencil you choose will have a big impact on both the techniques you can use and the look of your find artwork. Different pencil types are better for different styles of artwork, and you also need to consider the hardness of your lead These principles underlie the workings in real life of interpersonal communication. They are basic to communication. We can't ignore them. Interpersonal communication is inescapable We can't not communicate. The very attempt not to communicate communicates something. Through not only words, but through tone of voice and through gesture, posture.

Some methods and techniques are well known and very effective. 1. Descriptive Analysis. Descriptive analysis is an insight into the past. This statistical technique does exactly what the name suggests -Describe. It looks at data and analyzes past events and situations for getting an idea of how to approach the future Asepsis is the state of remaining free from pathogenic and contaminating microorganisms.This technique ensures a contaminant free environment while handling micro organisms Gestalt principles or laws are rules that describe how the human eye perceives visual elements. These principles aim to show how complex scenes can be reduced to more simple shapes. They also aim to explain how the eyes perceive the shapes as a single, united form rather than the separate simpler elements involved The PCR Process. PCR is a simple, yet elegant, enzymatic assay, which allows for the amplification of a specific DNA fragment from a complex pool of DNA. Dr. Kary Mullis, who discovered the PCR assay, stated it lets you pick the piece of DNA you're interested in and have as much of it as you want (Mullis, 1990).PCR can be performed using source DNA from a variety of tissues and. The next section, Principles of Leadership, ties in closely with this key concept. Principles of Leadership. To help you be, know, and do, follow these eleven principles of leadership (U.S. Army, 1983). The rest of the chapters in this Leadership guide expand on these principles and provide tools for implementing them

10 Basic Principles of Visual Design by José Torre

The manual also suggests that the suspect should be seated in an uncomfortable chair, out of reach of any controls like light switches or thermostats, furthering his discomfort and setting up a feeling of dependence.A one-way mirror is an ideal addition to the room, because it increases the suspect's anxiety and allows other detectives to watch the process and help the interrogator figure out. Visual Design Basics. Visual design focuses on the aesthetics of a site and its related materials by strategically implementing images, colors, fonts, and other elements. A successful visual design does not take away from the content on the page or function. Instead, it enhances it by engaging users and helping to build trust and interest in. 7 Reading Techniques for Increasing Learning & Knowledge Reading is a method of communication that enables a person to turn writing into meaning. It allows the reader to convert a written text into a meaningful language with independence, comprehension, and fluency, and to interact with the message

Time lapse of the Turtle City Photo Manipulation - YouTube

7 Main Principles of Design Photography - FixThePhoto

What is REST. REST is acronym for RE presentational S tate T ransfer. It is architectural style for distributed hypermedia systems and was first presented by Roy Fielding in 2000 in his famous dissertation. Like any other architectural style, REST also does have it's own 6 guiding constraints which must be satisfied if an interface needs to. 1. The Challenge Plot: A story of the underdog, rags to riches or sheer willpower triumphing over adversity. 2. The Connection Plot: A story about people who develop a relationship that bridges a. An isometric drawing is a 3D representation of an object, room, building or design on a 2D surface. One of the defining characteristics of an isometric drawing, compared to other types of 3D representation, is that the final image is not distorted. This is due to the fact that the foreshortening of the axes is equal 1. Define the problem. Diagnose the situation so that your focus is on the problem, not just its symptoms. Helpful problem-solving techniques include using flowcharts to identify the expected steps of a process and cause-and-effect diagrams to define and analyze root causes.. The sections below help explain key problem-solving steps Photoshop technical theory, tools, palettes, and painting will be introduced and followed with advanced techniques. Image manipulation, special effects, photo retouching, restoration, colour correction, and painting texture maps for three-dimensional work will be thoroughly explored in preparation for environment and character concepts

How to Make Colors POP in Photoshop - LensVid40 Truly Creative Examples Of Manipulated Robotic Animals

8 Important Reasons Of Photo Editing - Cut Out Image

Full Disclosure Principle. The full disclosure principle states that information that would make a difference to financial statement users or would be useful in decision-making should be disclosed in the financial statements. This way investors or creditors can see a total picture of the company before they choose to take any action Use It or Lose It: The Principles of Brain Plasticity. It was once thought that any brain function lost was irretrievable. Today, research into what's referred to as brain plasticity has proven that this is not the case. On the contrary, your brain continues to make new neurons throughout life in response to mental activity Learning the elements and principles of design goes a long way to understanding how magic happens. You must look at principles of design examples and how varied components work together to create an aesthetic picture. One of the best tips for incorporating principles of design balance, in particular, is to step back from the artwork for a moment Gestalt psychology is a school of thought that looks at the human mind and behavior as a whole. When trying to make sense of the world around us, Gestalt psychology suggests that we do not simply focus on every small component. Instead, our minds tend to perceive objects as part of a greater whole and as elements of more complex systems Principle 2. Work in the Power / Comfort Zone. This principle is very similar to maintaining a neutral posture, but is worth expounding upon here. The power zone for lifting is close to the body, between mi-thigh and mid-chest height. This zone is where the arms and back can lift the most with the least amount of effort

Integrated pest management, or IPM, is a process you can use to solve pest problems while minimizing risks to people and the environment. IPM can be used to manage all kinds of pests anywhere-in urban, agricultural, and wildland or natural areas Six Persuasion Techniques Explained with Propaganda Posters. Every aspiring leader hopes to wield influence over their followers. The ability to sway others to your opinion is a useful skill in many areas, particularly in business. But persuading employees and staff to work according to your standards, goals, and values is no simple task Make a small back stitch and create a loop thread. Point the needles inside the loop and pull through. Repeat the process twice to make a small knot and to make a stronger lock. Learning these essential hand stitching techniques is quick and easy! And even better, this knowledge will definitely stay with you forever (Image Source: Envato Elements) The good news is that, with the right public speaking techniques, you can improve your public speaking skills and become an effective speaker. In this tutorial, we've listed over 15 different public speaking techniques that can help you learn how to become an effective speaker